How to digitize a vinyl record

Before you start

  1. Load your vinyl record onto the Pioneer PL-990 turntable.
    • Determine what speed your record should be played at – 33 1/3 RPM (more common, also known as LPs, usually 12″ in diameter) or 45 RPM (usually created for singles, will have a larger hole in the center and requires use of the disc adapter located on the left of the turntable). Press in the button on the left of the turntable to toggle 45 RPM.

      Pioneer-PL990-Turntable
      Turntable playing a 33 1/3 RPM vinyl record, adapter for 45 RPM records visible to the left.
    • Press PLAY to check the sound quality of your record and adjust speed as needed. The turntable has very small speakers; it is best to listen to the sound through the Audio-Technica headphones. Adjust the volume of the headphones using the TASCAM US-366 audio interface.
  2. Push the “IN 1” button on the MT-VIKI switch for AUDIO (do not change any settings on the VIDEO MT-VIKI located behind the computer monitor).MT-VIKI-Audio-Turntable

Audacity Settings

  1. Start the Audacity software by clicking on the Audacity logo Audacity logo in the ribbon at the bottom of the screen.
  2. Check that the following settings are correct:
    • The button bar should read, left to right: “Windows WASAPI,” “Line In (TASCAM US-366),” “2 (Stereo) Recording,” “Speakers (TASCAM US-366).” Audacity button bar
    • At bottom left, Project Rate (Hz) should read “96000.” Project rate setting

Digitizing in Audacity

  1. With your record loaded on the turntable, click the “Record” button in Audacity.         Audacity record button
  2. Press “Play” on the turntable. You will be able to see whether Audacity is capturing the audio if the blue line starts to jump around, creating “waveforms.” You can monitor the sound quality during recording with the Audio-Technica headphones.
  3. When the record is finished playing, click the “Stop” button in Audacity. AudacityStopButton
  4. Save your file (to your own USB stick or external HD) by going to File ? Export Audio. We recommend exporting to 16-bit .WAV or .AIFF (not MP3).
    • If you plan to edit the file more in Audacity, you can save it as an Audacity project (*.aup).
  5. Metadata Editor will open automatically for each exported file after choosing the file format in the Export Audio dialog. If you have this information, enter it to the best of your knowledge (you can always enter it later by re-opening the file in Audacity and going to File ? Edit Metadata.Audacity-Metadata-Editor

Saving

Do NOT save files to the C:\ or the computer desktop. RADD has a 2TB spinning hard drive (E:\) for temporary file storage. Saving large files anywhere else will max out the computer space very quickly. There is a shortcut on the Desktop to the E:\ drive called “SaveWorkHere.”

If possible, always save your work to your own external hard drive or USB thumb drive, or cloud storage if you have enough space. If you forgot to bring a storage device with you, SLIS Library offers portable hard drives for check-out.

When you’re done

  1. Remove your record from the turntable and take it with you – people do forget!
  2. Make sure you have all your files on your USB stick/hard drive. SLIS Library offers portable HDs for personal checkout if you forgot to bring one.
  3. Exit Audacity.

Troubleshooting

How do I get rid of audio silence in Audacity?

  • Click on menu item Effect ? Truncate Silence and then clicking OK.

I can hear the record through the headphones, but Audacity isn’t capturing anything!

  • Check the MT-VIKI audio switch. Is the turntable (IN 1) button pressed?

How to digitize 35mm film

About 35mm film

Digitizing film is trickier than slides, which are protected from most of the preservation dangers of handling by their mounts. When handling 35mm film, try to touch only the edge of the film with clean or gloved hands.

The PrimeFilm7200 film mount can hold six frames at a time, which means that it is best suited for digitizing short film strips or individual frames from photography projects. To digitize a film strip, you have two options:

  • Physically cut the film strip into six-frame segments. You can put the sections back together when you are finished if you have access to a tape splicer.
  • Pulling the film through the mount. This works best if the film you are digitizing is in good condition (i.e. no tears in the brackets, creases, or visible degradation) and you are not concerned about preserving the film strip afterwards.

Before you start

    1. Turn on the PrimeFilm7200 scanner. The switch is on the back of the unit. When you turn scanner on, the button on the top right will turn blue.CyberViewX-Icon
    2. Open CyberView X5 on the computer.
    3. Load the film into the six-frame image holder.PrimeFilm7200-35mm-Film-Mount

Digitizing in CyberViewX

  1. Adjust the CyberViewX scan settings as needed.
  2. When you are ready to scan your first frame, go to the menu bar at the top and select “Scan ? Prescan ? Prescan Current Frame” or click the button at the top with an image of an eye. This process takes approximately 10 seconds and does NOT create a digital file, but allows you to preview the image.
  3. Make any necessary adjustments to the image (i.e. rotate image). If the image quality is poor, you can change the color variation, balance, or levels in “Image Adjustment” (the button that looks like a color wheel). To undo a change, click “Revert” (the lowest button on the left).
  4. When you are satisfied with the prescan rendering, create a digital (.tif) file. Select “Scan ? Scan Current Frame” (or the button that is scanning a film frame). This process usually takes around 20-30 seconds.
  5. When the scan is complete, you will not see a rendering of the image in CyberViewX – it will be saved automatically to the PrimeFilm Scans folder on the desktop.

Post-digitization clean-up

  1. If you forgot to change your scan settings in CyberViewX, you can do so in IrfanView (the default application for viewing .tif files). Doubleclick your image to open it in IrfanView – FAQ about IrfanView coming soon!
  2. Images will be assigned generic names (i.e. “image010.tif”) by CyberViewX. Feel free to rename your images to make the content more obvious, but keep the unique identifier (010) to ensure that no two files have the same name. The Library of Congress provides some useful tips for naming conventions in personal digital archiving projects and for larger digital preservation projects (and an accompanying 4-part video series on the subject).

Saving

Do NOT save files to the C:\ or the computer desktop. RADD has a 2TB spinning hard drive (E:\) for temporary file storage. Saving large files anywhere else will max out the computer space very quickly. There is a shortcut on the desktop to the E:\ drive called “SaveWorkHere.”

If possible, always save your work to your own external hard drive or USB thumb drive, or cloud storage if you have enough space. If you forgot to bring a storage device with you, SLIS Library offers portable hard drives for check-out.

When you’re done

  1. Remove your film from the PrimeFilm 7200 machine. Don’t forget to take it with you when you leave!
  2. Make sure that you have migrated all of your files to your USB stick/external hard drive.
  3. Exit all applications on the computer, and turn the PrimeFilm 7200 scanner off.

Troubleshooting

My image isn’t rendering in CyberViewX!
  • Did you load the film mount?
  • Make sure you’re selecting “Prescan” instead of “Scan” – images will not preview in Scan.

How to digitize a photographic slide

 

Before you start

    1. Turn on the PrimeFilm7200 scanner. The switch is on the back of the unit. When you turn scanner on, the button on the top right will turn blue.PrimeFilm7200
    2. Open CyberView X5 on the computer. CyberViewX-Icon
    3. Load your slides into the four-frame image holder. All images will need to be arranged so that the longer side is horizontal, otherwise part of the image will be cut off by the plastic mount.PrimeFilm7200-Slide-Mount

Digitizing in CyberViewX

  1. Adjust CyberViewX scan settings to meet your needs.
  2. When you are ready to scan your first slide, go to the menu bar at the top and select “Scan ? Prescan ? Prescan Current Frame” or click the button at the top with an image of an eye. This process takes approximately 10 seconds and does NOT create a digital file, but allows you to preview the image.
  3. In prescan mode, make any necessary adjustments to the image (i.e. rotate image). If the image quality is poor, you can change the color variation, balance, or levels in “Image Adjustment” (the button that looks like a color wheel). To undo a change, click “Revert” (the lowest button on the left).
  4. When you are satisfied with the prescan rendering, create a digital (.tif) file. Select “Scan ? Scan Current Frame” (or the button that is scanning a film frame). This process usually takes around 20-30 seconds.
  5. When the scan is complete, you will not see a rendering of the image in CyberViewX – it will be saved automatically to the PrimeFilm Scans folder on the desktop.

Post-digitization clean-up

  1. If you forgot to change your scan settings in CyberViewX, you can do so in IrfanView (the default application for viewing .tif files). Doubleclick your image to open it in IrfanView – FAQ about IrfanView coming soon!
  2. Images will be assigned generic names (i.e. “image010.tif”) by CyberViewX. Feel free to rename your images to make the content more obvious, but keep the unique identifier (010) to ensure that no two files have the same name. The Library of Congress provides some useful tips for naming conventions in personal digital archiving projects and for larger digital preservation projects (and an accompanying 4-part video series on the subject).

Saving

Do NOT save files to the C:\ or the Desktop on the computer. RADD has a 2TB spinning hard drive (E:\) for temporary file storage. Saving large files anywhere else will max out the computer space very quickly. There is a shortcut on the Desktop to the E:\ drive called “SaveWorkHere.”

If possible, always save your work to your own external hard drive or USB thumb drive, or cloud storage if you have enough space. If you forgot to bring a storage device with you, SLIS Library offers portable hard drives for check-out.

When you’re done

  1. Remove your slides. Don’t forget to take them with you when you leave!
  2. Make sure that you have migrated all of your files to your USB stick/external hard drive.
  3. Exit all applications on the computer, and turn the PrimeFilm 7200 scanner off.

Troubleshooting

My image isn’t rendering in CyberViewX!
  • Did you load the slide mount?
  • Make sure you’re selecting “Prescan” instead of “Scan” – images will not preview in Scan.

RADD featured in Madison Magazine

RADD made 2015’s Madison Magazine “M-List”, which this year focuses on social innovation. We’re tremendously honored and excited!

(One tiny correction: RADD hasn’t been around “for years,” though we certainly hope it will be. We’ve been around for six or eight months. The mission to share and preserve cultural information—that has certainly been around for years!)

As always, huge thanks to all of RADD’s donors, supporters, and users. RADD wouldn’t be nearly so rad without you.

Key tools: security cables and hook-and-loop strips

RADD currently sits in an open section of the SLIS Laboratory Library. This has obvious advantages for student use and experimentation, but it also raises the spectre of damage and theft.

In fact, RADD has had materials stolen. In fall 2014 someone stole a Canon PowerShot A2400 digital camera from RADD’s bookscanner, and in fall 2015 someone walked away with the microcassette player donated by Dr. Ethelene Whitmire, which had not yet been secured. Aside from posting pictures of Latin curse tablets—tempting, but not friendly—what could we do to protect our investment in RADD?

Larger pieces of equipment are much easier to secure. Kensington and other security-product firms sell widgets that hold security cables that can be glued onto machines. The cables can then be secured to tables or possibly to a desktop computer. Kensington also has lockable cable holders, to evade theft of USB and power cables.

The videocamera RADD uses to capture video from Mini-DV tapes presented a special challenge: no available surface to attach a security widget. The solution we chose was using electrical tape to bind together the hook-and-loop band intended to go around a filmer’s hand, and then passing a security cable through the band.

Smaller materials—cameras, microcassette recorders, Raspberry Pis—are harder to secure, partly because cable widgets are too big to attach to them, partly because they do not have much surface to attach security widgets to. The solution we are exploring is hook-and-loop strips. Currently RADD’s Raspberry Pi (part of its bookscanner) and microcassette recorder are attached to furniture this way. This is “security by nuisance” rather than a real security lock; a determined thief could still make away with the equipment. Our hope is that the noise and nuisance of prying the hook-and-loop strip apart is sufficient theft deterrence for now.

Choosing RADD’s capabilities

How did SLIS choose which analog material RADD can digitize, and which digital media it can capture data from? The answer is part planning, part serendipity.

The group of Digital Curation students who first made concrete plans for RADD did not do so until they had conducted a sweep of the SLIS Library and SLIS faculty and staff to find out what at-risk analog and digital media needed attention. They discovered:

  • VHS, Betamax, Mini-DV, and U-Matic videocassettes
  • audio cassettes and microcassettes
  • 35mm filmstrips with accompanying audiocassettes
  • 3.5″ floppy diskettes with a sprinkling of Zip disks
  • microfilm and microfiche
  • some film (in various sizes)

They also dealt with additional formats that instructor Dorothea Salo told them would be important in future SLIS coursework: 5.25″ floppy disks and vinyl records, for example. They then priced out the necessary equipment, sometimes offering choices between ideal-but-pricey equipment and less-good-but-cheaper equipment.

Not all these media have yet joined RADD’s capabilities. Film, microfilm, and microfiche digitization equipment turned out to be vastly too expensive for RADD’s minimal startup funding. (Super-8 film digitization is still a possibility, but the need for it has not yet turned up.) We also made some purchasing missteps: consumer-grade video digitization equipment from Hauppauge, for example, proved inadequate to capture from our Betamax and U-Matic machines, though it did adequately with VHS. We wound up replacing it with the prosumer-level Aja Kona LSe video-capture card, which has performed much better. (Aja’s technical support is also excellent.)

Other RADD capabilities came about because of donations. We did not originally know that the IMation SuperDrive kindly donated to RADD by Catherine Pellegrino reads the highly rare 120MB “IMation SuperDisk” as well as ordinary 3.5″ floppy diskettes, but we were certainly pleased to discover the capability! As for the Iomega Jaz disk, RADD’s ability to read it is the result of two separate donations of a non-working external drive and a working internal drive. A few minutes’ work with a screwdriver pried open the drive case on the external drive, which then happily fit around and powered the working internal drive. The resulting “FrankenJaz” drive is unlovely but entirely functional.

Our advice to organizations considering building something like RADD:

  • Find out what you have first. Don’t buy equipment until you know you need it.
  • Solicit donations of older equipment.
  • Don’t be afraid to experiment. Exactly how to hook a given piece of analog playback equipment to a computer is not always obvious—but there is almost always a way to do it.
  • Be a little wary of consumer-grade equipment and software; it will not always perform to archival-quality expectations.
  • Be prepared to outsource digitization or capture for materials when the equipment to do it in-house is price-prohibitive.

Notes on RADD’s analog audio

RADD can currently digitize audio from audio cassettes, microcassettes, and vinyl records (33 and 45 rpm; if we run into 78s we’ll have to buy more equipment). We have a reel-to-reel player awaiting cleaning and overhaul also. The playback equipment is nothing special, though microcassette recorders are starting to be difficult to buy new these days, so check your favorite auction website or ask your favorite social scientist.

We found ourselves buying a fair few audio adapters; we recommend setting a hundred dollars or so of budget aside for cables and adapters generally. The basic analog audio jack setup is two RCA jacks (one red, one white) into which a single cable with two plugs (again, one red and one white) fits. (If you have a video RCA cable with red, white, and yellow plugs, it will work as well.) Microcassette players and some other audio players you’ll run into won’t have RCA jacks, though, so you’ll have to buy an RCA adapter for whatever audio-out jack they do have.

What makes the magic happen is this TASCAM USB audio interface and mixer. This gadget is what collects the sound from the analog playback equipment and sends it to the computer over a USB cable for capture.

The only problem we have with it is that it only has one set of audio-in jacks! Forcing RADDers to plug and unplug players from the TASCAM unit is unreasonable, as well as risky to the equipment. We solved this problem by buying an audio switch so that RADDers can switch to any player at the push of a button. We are labeling buttons with our handy label-maker:

Audio switch

We installed free and open-source Audacity software for audio capture and editing. Audacity is the exception to the rule about open-source software being utterly unusable. Though Audacity is very powerful, we find it fairly simple to use for simple purposes. It remembers settings between uses, which means RADDers generally don’t have to worry about them because we set them according to best practices in audio capture: 96000Hz Project Rate (as Audacity calls it) and save as 16-bit AIFF or WAV (which our instructions tell RADDers how to do).

Audacity has dozens of “effects” it can perform on digital audio. The one we use most often is “Truncate Silence.” Have an audio cassette that’s 90 minutes long, all but 10 minutes of which is silence? Truncate Silence fixes it!

If you’re new to this, you are most likely to err in choosing the file format. Walk away from the mp3 setting! MP3 is a “lossy” audio format not suitable for preservation. AIFF or WAV is what you want. If you need an mp3 also, save out another copy of the file.

We hope to discuss setting audio levels in another post.

Key tool: label maker

RADD is a complicated system. It teems with cables, cords, dongles, boxes, and other miscellanea. After a point, putting a hand on the correct cable becomes all but impossible without labeling.

We would not have expected this, but an ordinary label maker has turned out to be one of RADD’s most important tools. We have used it to help tame USB-cord and power-cable chaos:

IMG_0158

We have also used it on our video and audio switches so that RADDers can pick the analog player they’re using without swapping cables:

Audio switch

Video switch

If you want to build your own RADD, I strongly encourage locating one of these handy little gadgets.

How to digitize an audio cassette

Before you start

  1. Push the power button in on the TASCAM CD-A750. You should see an orange-lettered display above the CD player at left.
  2. Make sure the MONITOR slider on the TASCAM CD-A750 (between the EJECT button and the PHONES jack) is set to TAPE.
  3. Make sure the MODE slider on the TASCAM CD-A750 (just under the PLAY and READY buttons) is set to TAPE.
  4. Make sure the REV MODE slider on the TASCAM CD-A750 (to the right of the MODE slider) is set to the middle setting, which plays both sides of the tape and then stops.
  5. Push button IN 3 on the MT-VIKI switch dedicated to audio (note: not the one dedicated to video! You want the button labeled CASSETTE, not VHS). Audio Switch

Audacity and its settings

  1. Start the Audacity software by clicking on the Audacity logo Audacity logo in the ribbon at the bottom of the screen.
  2. Check that the following settings are correct:
    • The button bar should read, left to right: “Windows WASAPI,” “Line In (TASCAM US-366),” “2 (Stereo) Recording,” “Speakers (TASCAM US-366).” Audacity button bar
    • At bottom left, Project Rate (Hz) should read “44100.”

Digitizing

  1. Push the EJECT button on the TASCAM CD-A750 to open the tape drawer (please remove any cassette accidentally left inside and take it to SLIS Library staff)
  2. Put your cassette in tape-side down and with the first side facing out.
  3. Press the rewind button. Rewind button Rewinding will stop automatically when it reaches the start of the tape.
  4. Click the Record button in Audacity. Audacity record button
  5. Press the rightmost PLAY button (arrow pointing right) Play button on the TASCAM CD-A750. Wait a minute or so to be sure Audacity is capturing the audio; most cassettes start with a silent section.
  6. You can monitor the sound with the Audio-Technica headphones, or by watching the blue lines jump around in Audacity.
  7. When the tape stops playing, click the Stop button in Audacity. AudacityStopButton
  8. Save your file (to your own USB stick or USB hard drive) by going to File > Export Audio. We recommend exporting to 16-bit WAV or AIFF (not mp3). If you plan to do more work on the file with Audacity, you can save it as an Audacity project (*.aup).

Saving

Do NOT save files to the C:\ or the Desktop on the computer. RADD has a 2TB spinning hard drive (E:\) for temporary file storage. Saving audio or video files anywhere else will max out the computer space very quickly, and possible cause your digitization process to fail if the file size is very large. There is a shortcut on the Desktop to the E:\ drive called “SaveWorkHere.”

If possible, always save your work to your own external hard drive or USB thumb drive, or cloud storage if you have enough space. If you forgot to bring a storage device with you, SLIS Library offers portable hard drives for check-out.

Post-digitization clean-up

If you wish, you can eliminate lengthy sections of audio silence in Audacity by clicking on Effects > “Truncate Silence” then clicking the OK button.

When you’re done

  1. Remove the tape and take it with you – people do forget!
  2. Make sure you have all your files on your USB stick/hard drive.
  3. Push the Power button on the TASCAM CD-A750 to turn it off.
  4. Exit Audacity.

Troubleshooting

I can hear the cassette through the headphones, but Audacity isn’t capturing anything!

Check the MT-VIKI audio switch. Was button 3 pushed?

Acknowledgments

RADD would not exist if not for a great deal of generosity and effort from many people at SLIS as well as in the larger UW-Madison community.

Equipment donors

The following people, as well as the School of Library and Information Studies, have generously contributed equipment to RADD:

  • Rick Burnson
  • Tim Czerwonka
  • Patrick Davis
  • Ann Engler
  • Catherine Pellegrino
  • Dorothea Salo
  • Cindy Severt
  • Amy Sloper
  • Ethelene Whitmire

Planners and builders

The following people, then students in LIS 644 “Digital Tools, Trends and Debates,” built, tested, and documented the book scanner that is part of RADD:

  • Jennifer McBurney (project manager)
  • Molly Dineen
  • Ryan Hellebrand
  • Trevor Kuehl
  • Sean Ottosen
  • Holly Storck-Post

The following people, then students in LIS 668 “Digital Curation,” did the original scope and budget planning for RADD:

  • Kat Arndt
  • Matt Grebe
  • Brian Miller
  • Scott Prater
  • Jordan Radke

The following people have given time and expertise to building RADD and making it work:

  • Will May
  • Greg Putnam
  • Dorothea Salo

Documentation and outreach

The following people have given time to documenting and publicizing RADD:

  • Anjali Bhasin
  • Ellen LeClere
  • Dorothea Salo
  • Kelsey Sorenson

Last but hardly least, RADD would not exist if not for Anjali Bhasin of the SLIS Laboratory Library, who cleared space and found furniture for it.